Periodontitis Increases Risk of Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease in Diabetics Subjects Living in Cameroon

Author(s): Essama Eno Belinga Lawrence, Mbango Ekouta Noel Desiree, Nokam Abena Elvire, Essam Nloo Alain Patrick, Bell Ngan Williams, Abanda Dang Gabriel, Ebana Mvogo Come, Bengondo Messanga Charles, Lemogoum Daniel

The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease (PAOD) and Periodontitis in Diabetics subjects followed in Douala General Hospital, Cameroon.

Materials and Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study from January 1 to March 20, 2020. To be included in the study, subjects had to be either type 1 or type 2 diabetics, at least 18 years of age and benefiting from either inpatient or outpatient followed up in the internal medicine department. Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) were measured for each participant with manual sphygmomanometer and pocket Doppler. Periodontitis was classified based on pocket depth (PD) and clinical attachment (CAL) values according the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Periodontology 2007 (CDC/AAP) All statistical analyses were performed using Epi Info7 software. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated to PAOD in our sample.

Results: A total of 100 patients were recruited. Mean periodontal parameters such as PD, CAL, number of sites with PD>4mm, number of sites with CAL>3mm were significantly higher in PAOD diabetics subjects compared to those without PAOD. After multivariate logistic regression, the factors remaining associated to PAOD were periodontitis (OR=3,60 [1,12-11,53]) and hypercholesteremia (OR=5,99 [2,04-17,55]).

Conclusion: Management of periodontitis may reduce the risk of having PAOD in diabetic subjects followed at the Douala General Hospital, Cameroon.

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