Nutritional Genomics and Microbiota to Control Postprandial Dysmetabolism

Author(s): Giuseppe Merra, Annunziata Capacci, Giuseppe Cenname, Ernesto Esposito, Maria Dri, Laura Di Renzo, Marco Marchetti

There is a causal relationship between cardiovascular risk and plasma levels of triglycerides, lipoproteins rich in triglycerides and remnants triglycerides. The importance of postprandial hyperlipidemia in the development of atherosclerosis was suggested by several studies. The mechanisms through which postprandial lipoproteins exert the atherogenic effect can be manifold. It has been hypothesized that the postprandial phase corresponds to an inflammatory condition involving leukocytes and potentially contributing to endothelial dysfunction. In the pathogenesis of postprandial lipemia alterations, insulin resistance undoubtedly plays a leading role that is expressed at various levels. Obesity is associated with hypertriglyceridemia and low fasting HDL cholesterol levels. These abnormalities could explain the high incidence of cardiovascular disease in the obese population. In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in diseases related to the alteration of metabolism, causing conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes (TD2), cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome (MetS). In addition to the numerous factors to which this increase has been attributed, such as diet, physical activity and inflammation, numerous studies provide evidence of a correlation between intestinal microbiota and metabolic diseases. The aim of this umbrella review is clarify the interactions between diet and lifestyle, microbes and health and therefore the relationship between gut microbiota and metabolic diseases so that one day we may perhaps know exactly how to direct our diet in order to be able to "shape" our microbiota to im-prove our health.

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