Methodical Review on Poxvirus Replication, Genes Responsible for the Development of Infection and Host Immune Response Against the Disease

Author(s): Takele Tesgera Hurisa, Huaijie Jia, Guohua Chen, Fang Yong Xiang, Xiao-Bing He, Xia oxia Wang, Zhizhong Jing

Poxviruses are among the best known and most feared viruses in the world and their emergence was estimated to be around thousands of years ago. Poxviruses use the majority of their genes for intonation of their host antiviral reaction and, assumed as virulence genes. This review aims to cite information about the replication of poxvirus, genes responsible for causing the disease and host defense mechanism against the virus. Glycosaminoglycan’s (GAGs) is supposed to be the receptors of poxvirus during entrance to cells for replication. More than one enzyme is encoded by several poxviruses for production of DNA, which probably increases genome replication in inactive cells. Based on fluorescent dye visualization, the DNA synthesis of Poxvirus is detected within two hours after infection takes place in a separate juxtanuclear location known as factories. The Acquired immune response is a complex interaction of a number of cell types and the consequently lead to the generation of specific antiviral antibody of B lymphocytes and in virus-specific DTH and cytotoxic responses by T lymphocytes. In poxvirus infection, immunodeficiency syndrome reflects both a primary and secondary immunosuppression. Poxviruses infections have a varied effect on host macromolecular Syntheses and act against interferon activities.

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