Effect of Co-Administration of Cadmium, Magnesium and Alcohol on the Liver, Kidney and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers of Wistar Rats

Author(s): Chidi John Ogham, Jonathan Dabak, Kiri Jaryum

Background: There was a health challenge in our study area with no known etiology which affected mostly alcoholics. Water quality assessment in the area, indicated that it is contaminated with cadmium and had high magnesium content. The aim of this work, therefore, was to mimic the co-administration of cadmium and magnesium with graded concentrations of alcohol using a rat model to assess the effect on the liver, kidney and redox status, in order to give a plausible explanation on the cause(s) of this health challenge.

Methods and Results: Rats were randomly divided into eight groups of 4 rats per group in metabolic cages. Group 1 served as normal control and fed with animal Feed and Water only. Group 2 was treated with feed and 6% Alcohol only (Test control). Group 3 to 8 were treated with the combination of cadmium, magnesium and graded concentrations of alcohol (aq). Treatments were done for a period of 21 days, after which the rats were sacrificed, serum was obtained for biochemical analysis; the liver and kidney were harvested for histopathological examinations and redox status assessment. The results revealed that increasing alcohol concentration with a constant concentration of Cd and Mg induces increasing degrees of hepatic, renal and oxidative damages. Pronounced damages in the tissues are in the alcohol concentrations above 4% v/v.

Conclusion: This suggest that alcoholics have higher risk of kidney, liver and oxidative stress diseases caused by cadmium toxicity in areas where the water source is polluted with cadmium as the case with our study area.

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