A Pilot Lifestyle Behavior Intervention for Overweight or Obese Pregnant Women: Results and Process Evaluation

Author(s): Mei-Wei Chang*, Alai Tan, Jonathan Schaffir, Duane T. Wegener, Brett Worly, Katherine Strafford, Loriana Soma, Cassandra Sampsell, Maggie Rosen

Introduction: This paper presents a pilot lifestyle behavior intervention effect on gestational weight gain and maternal and neonatal outcomes and intervention acceptability.

Materials and Methods: Overweight or obese pregnant participants (N = 70) were randomized to the intervention or usual care group. The 20-week intervention integrated Hope theory and goal-oriented episodic future thinking (GoEFT) to prevent excessive gestational weight gain through stress and emotion management, healthy eating, and physical activity. Intervention participants completed a weekly web intervention module with 2 parts (I and II) and joined individual health coaching sessions (10 sessions). The primary outcome was gestational weight gain (GWG). Secondary outcomes included maternal and neonatal outcomes. Data were collected at 3 time points: baseline (< 17 weeks gestation, T1), 24-27 weeks gestation (T2), and 35-37 weeks gestation (T3). Intervention participants completed a semi-structured interview to evaluate the intervention. We compared GWG at T2 and T3 with T1 for intervention and usual care groups using t-tests and conducted content analysis to identify common themes for intervention acceptability.

Results: There were no significant group differences in GWG at T2 and T3. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were similar between groups. Common themes for intervention acceptability were disked web Part I intervention presented in text, the need for choosing a weekly intervention topic, raising awareness through GoEFT and self-evaluation, increased motivation through GoEFT, and usefulness of pre-written goals and goal progress evaluation.

Conclusions: Results of process evaluation are helpful for researchers to design a lifestyle intervention to prevent excessive gestational wei

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