Utilizing Discoveries in Microbiology
Department of Plant Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, USA
*Corresponding Author: Gary Strobel, Department of Plant Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, Mt, 59717 USA
Received: 16 September 2019; Accepted: 27 September 2019; Published: 03 October 2019
Gary Strobel. Utilizing Discoveries in Microbiology. Journal of Biotechnology and Biomedicine 2 (2019): 125-127.View / Download Pdf Share at Facebook
Microbiology, Volatile organic compounds, Microbe
Microbiology articles Microbiology Research articles Microbiology review articles Microbiology PubMed articles Microbiology PubMed Central articles Microbiology 2023 articles Microbiology 2024 articles Microbiology Scopus articles Microbiology impact factor journals Microbiology Scopus journals Microbiology PubMed journals Microbiology medical journals Microbiology free journals Microbiology best journals Microbiology top journals Microbiology free medical journals Microbiology famous journals Microbiology Google Scholar indexed journals Volatile organic compounds articles Volatile organic compounds Research articles Volatile organic compounds review articles Volatile organic compounds PubMed articles Volatile organic compounds PubMed Central articles Volatile organic compounds 2023 articles Volatile organic compounds 2024 articles Volatile organic compounds Scopus articles Volatile organic compounds impact factor journals Volatile organic compounds Scopus journals Volatile organic compounds PubMed journals Volatile organic compounds medical journals Volatile organic compounds free journals Volatile organic compounds best journals Volatile organic compounds top journals Volatile organic compounds free medical journals Volatile organic compounds famous journals Volatile organic compounds Google Scholar indexed journals Microbe articles Microbe Research articles Microbe review articles Microbe PubMed articles Microbe PubMed Central articles Microbe 2023 articles Microbe 2024 articles Microbe Scopus articles Microbe impact factor journals Microbe Scopus journals Microbe PubMed journals Microbe medical journals Microbe free journals Microbe best journals Microbe top journals Microbe free medical journals Microbe famous journals Microbe Google Scholar indexed journals discovery articles discovery Research articles discovery review articles discovery PubMed articles discovery PubMed Central articles discovery 2023 articles discovery 2024 articles discovery Scopus articles discovery impact factor journals discovery Scopus journals discovery PubMed journals discovery medical journals discovery free journals discovery best journals discovery top journals discovery free medical journals discovery famous journals discovery Google Scholar indexed journals fungal endophyte articles fungal endophyte Research articles fungal endophyte review articles fungal endophyte PubMed articles fungal endophyte PubMed Central articles fungal endophyte 2023 articles fungal endophyte 2024 articles fungal endophyte Scopus articles fungal endophyte impact factor journals fungal endophyte Scopus journals fungal endophyte PubMed journals fungal endophyte medical journals fungal endophyte free journals fungal endophyte best journals fungal endophyte top journals fungal endophyte free medical journals fungal endophyte famous journals fungal endophyte Google Scholar indexed journals cinnamon tree articles cinnamon tree Research articles cinnamon tree review articles cinnamon tree PubMed articles cinnamon tree PubMed Central articles cinnamon tree 2023 articles cinnamon tree 2024 articles cinnamon tree Scopus articles cinnamon tree impact factor journals cinnamon tree Scopus journals cinnamon tree PubMed journals cinnamon tree medical journals cinnamon tree free journals cinnamon tree best journals cinnamon tree top journals cinnamon tree free medical journals cinnamon tree famous journals cinnamon tree Google Scholar indexed journals Muscodor albus articles Muscodor albus Research articles Muscodor albus review articles Muscodor albus PubMed articles Muscodor albus PubMed Central articles Muscodor albus 2023 articles Muscodor albus 2024 articles Muscodor albus Scopus articles Muscodor albus impact factor journals Muscodor albus Scopus journals Muscodor albus PubMed journals Muscodor albus medical journals Muscodor albus free journals Muscodor albus best journals Muscodor albus top journals Muscodor albus free medical journals Muscodor albus famous journals Muscodor albus Google Scholar indexed journals pathogenic fungi articles pathogenic fungi Research articles pathogenic fungi review articles pathogenic fungi PubMed articles pathogenic fungi PubMed Central articles pathogenic fungi 2023 articles pathogenic fungi 2024 articles pathogenic fungi Scopus articles pathogenic fungi impact factor journals pathogenic fungi Scopus journals pathogenic fungi PubMed journals pathogenic fungi medical journals pathogenic fungi free journals pathogenic fungi best journals pathogenic fungi top journals pathogenic fungi free medical journals pathogenic fungi famous journals pathogenic fungi Google Scholar indexed journals Salmonella articles Salmonella Research articles Salmonella review articles Salmonella PubMed articles Salmonella PubMed Central articles Salmonella 2023 articles Salmonella 2024 articles Salmonella Scopus articles Salmonella impact factor journals Salmonella Scopus journals Salmonella PubMed journals Salmonella medical journals Salmonella free journals Salmonella best journals Salmonella top journals Salmonella free medical journals Salmonella famous journals Salmonella Google Scholar indexed journals skin infections articles skin infections Research articles skin infections review articles skin infections PubMed articles skin infections PubMed Central articles skin infections 2023 articles skin infections 2024 articles skin infections Scopus articles skin infections impact factor journals skin infections Scopus journals skin infections PubMed journals skin infections medical journals skin infections free journals skin infections best journals skin infections top journals skin infections free medical journals skin infections famous journals skin infections Google Scholar indexed journals
While the drive to discover and learn new things about the seemingly never ending world of microbes motivates us in our academic laboratories, it turns out that the world may not benefit in any practical way from all of our efforts. It is usually the case that the discovery process and the excitement that goes with being the first to invent or uncover a hidden secret of a microbe are the critical components that prompt a scientific endeavor. The discovery process is usually terminated by a report at a professional scientific meeting or more importantly, a scientific publication. This is usually followed by a series of professional credits, accolades or prizes associated with the discovery. Once successful, this process can be enhanced and repeated as funds from foundation, government entities and private sources may be further brought to bear on the subject. Basically, the scientific knowledge base about the microbe and its life and function is enhanced. Unfortunately, this may not have any impact on the general public who may be the chief supporters of the scientific investigations.
Throughout the world, in most developed countries, a system for patenting potentially useful discoveries exists. It is usually the case that the publication of the results of a discovery prior to initiating the patent process can nullify any patent activity on the discovery. Having a patent on a useful discovery is a key element in attracting commercial interests in getting the discovery to market. I feel that it is important for every investigator to carefully examine all scientific activities in the laboratory for potential utility and then proceed to go through the processes of patent protection and licensing to an interested company. There are financial as well as personal rewards in adopting this method of operation as one can reap the benefits of a novel discovery but also of its impact on the public sector.
As an example of this approach I should like to comment on just one example of how this has been done in my laboratory over the past 40 years. I have been particularly interested in the discovery and role of endophytes in plants. These microorganisms (mostly fungi and bacteria) exist in the roots, stems leaves, flowers and fruits of all plants. Their role is somewhat obscure but they may provide protection from environmental factors such as disease or heat stress and have an influence on plant growth. Only a few percent of the world’s 350, 000 plant species have ever been investigated for their endophyte population. In the late 1990s, we discovered a novel fungal endophyte in a cinnamon tree in Honduras and it was named Muscodor albus . The organism produced a plethora of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that possessed enormous antimicrobial activities . Quickly it was realized that the organism had enormous potential utility as a biocontrol agent since many of its target organisms were plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria and nematodes and it was patented [3, 4, 5]. A biocontrol company was found and expressed interest in the organism. They demonstrated its bioactivity “in house” and licensed the organism. Suffice it to say that M. albus has been approved by the US- EPA for release into the environment for agriculture purposes and it is now on the market offered by MBI of Davis, California. It has the potential to replace the commonly used sterilant-methyl bromide, which is not only toxic, but harmful to the ozone layer and is Internationally banned.
The discoveries around the novel genus Muscodor continued over the years with more and more species being found in plants all over the world in a wide variety of plant families . One of the most fruitful species is Muscodor crispans that was found in the Brazilian Amazon . Its VOC composition, consisting of mostly GRAS (generally recognized as safe) listed compounds by the USA- FDA, was patented and now it and modifications of its gas formula are being sold by Jeneil Biotech of Saukville, Wisc. as Flavorzon . It was learned that the VOCs of this organism as a 1% solution had antimicrobial activity that was indistinguishable from that of Clorox or quaternary ammonium solutions . Flavorzon is now being used to treat animal processing plants as well as hides and carcasses in order to control E. coli and Salmonella sp. populations. Modifications of the formula are being used in salad dressings and soy milk to extend shelf life and another modification of the formula has been found useful in protecting fruits and vegetables from post-harvest decay. Still other potential uses of it exist for controlling fungal and bacterial infections of man and animals. And as an example, Ecoplanet of Montana has a version of a Muscodor inspired formula that is on the market as Sx Calf to very successfully treat scours or diarrhea in farm animals .
These various VOC formulae, because of their broad spectrum efficacy against pathogenic fungi and bacteria have enormous potential to be used not only in plant and animal agriculture but in humans as well. Initial indications, as a result of hundreds of volunteer trials are applications for topical creams to treat skin infections, oral rinses for bacterial gum and fungal infections, as well as its potential (VOC) advantage for treating lung diseases . It appears that the stage is set for the VOCs of Muscodor to solve a myriad of problems to treat a multitude of diseases in the human population, especially as the International concern over development of resistance to these agents has occurred.
- Worapong J, Strobel G, Ford EJ, et al. Muscodor albus gen. et sp. nov. an endophyte from Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Mycotaxon 79 (2001): 67-79.
- Mitchell AM, Strobel GA, Moore E, et al. Volatile antimicrobials from a novel endophytic fungus. Microbiology 147 (2001): 2943-2950.
- Strobel GA. Muscodor albus and its biological promise. Phytochemistry Reviews 10 (2011): 165-172.
- Strobel GA. Muscodor albus and its biological promise. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 33 (2006): 514-522.
- Grimme E, Zidack NK, Sikora RA, et al. Comparison of Muscodor albus volatiles with a biorational mixture for control of seedling diseases of sugar beet and root knot nematode on tomato. Plant Disease 91 (2007): 220-225.
- Chen JJ, Feng XX, Xia CY, et al. Confirming the phylogenetic position of the genus Muscodor and the description of a new Muscodor species. Mycosphere 10 (2019): 187-201.
- Mitchell AM, Strobel GA, Hess WM, et al. Muscodor crispans, a novel endophyte from Ananas ananassoides in the Bolivian Amazon. Fungal Diversity 31 (2008): 37-43.
- Mitchell AM, Strobel GA, Moore E, et al. Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans. Microbiology 156 (2010): 270-277.
- L. Efficacy of a food- grade mixture of volatile compounds to reduce Salmonella levels on food contact surfaces. MS. Thesis U. of Georgia (2016).
- Lutey T. A Montana scientific breakthrough pays off for cattle industry. Billings Gazette (2018).
- Strobel GA and Daisy B. Bioprospecting for microbial endophytes and their natural products. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 67 (2003): 491-502.