Supramolecular Chemistry: Unveiling the Fascinating World of Non-Covalent Interactions and Complex Assemblies
Author(s): Shreya Talreja, Shashank Tiwari
Supramolecular chemistry is a captivating and interdisciplinary field that explores the interactions between molecules to form complex and functional assemblies through non-covalent forces. This review paper presents an in-depth exploration of the fundamental concepts, supramolecular assemblies and structures, applications in nanotechnology and biology, as well as challenges and future perspectives in supramolecular chemistry. The paper begins by elucidating the fundamental principles of supramolecular chemistry, emphasizing the significance of weak, non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, van der Waals forces, and π-π interactions. Molecular recognition, self-assembly, and host-guest interactions are highlighted as key concepts shaping the field. Subsequently, the review delves into various supramolecular assemblies and structures, showcasing the diversity of nanoscale architectures that arise from self-assembly processes. From nanotubes and nanofibers to metal-organic frameworks and dynamic supramolecular systems, each structure's properties and potential applications are explored. The application of supramolecular chemistry in nanotechnology and biology is a central focus of the paper. It covers the design of supramolecular materials for drug delivery, nanoelectronics, nanosensors, and biomimetic systems. Additionally, the integration of supramolecular approaches in biology, including molecular recognition, enzyme mimics, and bioimaging, is discussed in detail. Furthermore, the challenges faced by supramolecular chemistry, such as predictability, stability, and scalability, are addressed. The paper also looks into the future perspectives of the field, envisioning adaptive materials, supramolecular machines, and data-driven design as exciting prospects. Overall, this comprehensive review offers a thorough understanding of the captivating world of supramolecular chemistry and its potential to revolutionize various scientific and technological domains. Through interdisciplinary efforts and a focus on sustainability, supramolecular chemistry holds promise for addressing real-world challenges and shaping a future defined by innovative materials and transformative applications.