Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care centers in Djbouti City, Republic of Djibouti

Author(s): Sahal Darar Dirir, Ambroise Ahouidi, Mohamed Osman Miguil , Aboubacry Drame, Assane Dieng, Houssein Youssouf Darar, Mohamed Houmed Aboubakar, Makhtar Camara, Coumba Toure-Kane, Halimatou Diop Ndiaye

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a major public health concern affecting millions of people worldwide. More than 90% of infections are acquired during infancy through perinatal transmission leading to chronicity and possibility to develop hepatocellular carcinoma.

Objective: This study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence of HBV infection and risk factors among pregnant women received at selected antenatal care centers in Djibouti city.

Methods: A total of 882 pregnant women were enrolled in the study using a systematic sampling technique. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Five milliliters of venous blood samples were collected and tested for HBV using the ELISA diagnostic test. The collected data were entered into CS Entry and exported to logiciel R for statistical analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine predictor variables. Statistical significance was reported at p-value <0.05.

Results: The prevalence of infection was 9.3% (n=82), with CS2 and Einguela having the highest prevalence. Family history of HBV (OR=8; 95% CI 4.40-14.6), pregnant women with high education (OR=9.37; 95% CI 3.14-28.6), history of blood transfusion (OR=2.53; 95% CI 1.09-5.61), abortion (OR=2.08; 95% CI 1.03-4.12), and large multiparous wombs were predictive factors of HBV infection.

Conclusion: The results of our study indicate a highly endemic area, where family history of HBV, multiparous women, education, trimester and abortion were predictive factors for infection. It would therefore be important to increase awareness of the risks of transmission, early systematic screening in the first trimester of pregnancy, and extension of vaccination to household contacts of HBV-infected patients.

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