Prevalence of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis among HIV-positive Patients Attending COCIN Rehabilitation Center in Mangu, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

Author(s): Banda JM, Essien UC, Ebu M, Isa BE, Yakubu BD, Joshua IA, Sheyin Z

Background: Globally, tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Nigeria has one of the largest burdens of TB and HIV/AIDS in the world. Most cases of TB in Nigeria are closely linked to HIV infections.

Aim: In this study, the prevalence of TB among PLWHA was investigated.

Methodology: One hundred and sixty three (163) sputum specimens were collected from patients attending COCIN Rehabilitation Center in Mangu Jos, Plateau State. The sputum specimens were stained by ZiehlNeelsen’s technique and examined microscopically for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB).

Results: Out of the 163 sputum specimens tested six were positive for AFB giving an overall prevalence of 3.7%. The prevalence of TB/HIV co-infection with respect to age group and gender revealed that patient within the age range of < 20 years had the highest prevalence of 14.3%, while male patients were found to have a prevalence of 4.9% compared to their female counterparts (1.7%). Regarding marital status, higher prevalence (9.1%) was recorded among patients who are married compared to the prevalence of 2.3% found among the singles. The prevalence in relation to occupation, showed that patients who engaged in farming had the highest prevalence of 5.2%, followed by those who identified as student (5.0%) and business (2.9%). However, no case of TB was recorded among patients who identified as civil servants and housewives.

Conclusion: This study has established the link between TB and HIV infection in the study area. We therefore recommend that further studies be conducted in the entire Plateau State for possible intervention in terms of improve antiretroviral treatment coverage tuberculosis screening, treatment and prevention as a way of reducing active TB among people living with HIV.

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