Prevalence and Clinical Outcome of Inborn Neonates with Hypoglycaemia at the Point of Admission as seen in Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

Author(s): West BA, Aitafo JE

Background: Neonatal hypoglycaemia is one of the commonest abnormalities of the newborn which, if unrecognized may result in poor neurologic development, poor intellectual functions, seizures or even death. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prevalence of hypoglycaemia, its’ associated risk factors and clinical outcome among inborn neonates.

Methodology: This prospective study was conducted in the Neonatal Unit of the Rivers State University teaching Hospital from April 2019 to March 2020.

Results: Of the 468 neonates admitted, 71 (15.2%) had hypoglycaemia with M:F ratio of 1.6:1. Hypoglycaemia was more common with presentations on the first day of life, those who commenced breastfeeding from day 2 of admission and above and had hypothermia. The commonest clinical features in hypoglycaemic neonates were difficulty in breathing (45.1%), seizures (7.0%) and cyanosis (5.6%), although there was no statistical significance (P>0.05). Maternal risk factors significantly associated with neonatal hypoglycaemia were Gestational Diabetes (P<0.0001) and Prolonged rupture of membranes (P=0.003). More neonates with probable sepsis, neonatal jaundice, prematurity and Macrosomia were hypoglycaemic though not of statistical significance (P>0.05). Of the 71 neonates with hypoglycaemia, 3 (4.2%) died.

Conclusion: Neonatal hypoglycaemia is still a common problem among inborn neonates in Rivers State University Teaching Hospital as evidenced by a prevalence of 15.2%. The common clinical features were difficulty breathing, seizures and cyanosis. Associated maternal risk factors were Gestational Diabetes and Prolonged rupture of membranes. Routine blood glucose screening of all sick neonates at point of admission is therefore advocated for early dete

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