Karyopherins in the Remodeling of Extracellular Matrix: Implications in Tendon Injury
Author(s): Connor Diaz, Finosh G. Thankam, Devendra K. Agrawal
Rotator Cuff Tendinopathies (RCT) are debilitating conditions characterized by alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the shoulder tendon, resulting in pain, discomfort, and functional limitations. Specific mediators, including HIF-1 α, TGF-β, MMP-9 and others have been implicated in the morphological changes observed in the tendon ECM. These mediators rely on karyopherins, a family of nuclear proteins involved in nucleo-cytoplasmic transport; however, the role of karyopherins in RCT remains understudied despite their potential role in nuclear transport mechanisms. Also, the understanding regarding the precise contributions of karyopherins in RCT holds great promise for deciphering the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease and potentially fostering the development of targeted therapeutic strategies. This article critically discusses the implications, possibilities, and perspectives of karyopherins in the pathophysiology of RCT.