Implications of Obstructive Sleep-related Breathing Disorder in Dentistry: Focus on Snoring and Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Author(s): Yeon-Hee Lee
Obstructive sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD) is an umbrella term that encompasses various types of upper airway dysfunctions during sleep characterized by increased respiratory effort secondary to snoring and/or increased upper airway resistance and pharyngeal collapse. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a representative SRBD that involves a significant decrease in or cessation of airflow despite the presence of respiratory effort. While snoring is considered a normal condition, it can cause serious noise disturbance to sleep partners and is considered a predictor of OSA. Snoring and OSA are highly correlated with obesity. SRBDs can lead to cardiovascular disease, hypertension, decreased quality of life, decreased work efficiency, daytime sleepiness, decreased neurocognitive activity, and psychological impairments. In dentistry, research on sleep problems has focused on temporomandibular disorder (TMD)/orofacial pain. The relationship between OSA and TMD/orofacial pain has been reported, but it is not clear whether it is a simple correlation or a causal relationship. Therefore, we aimed to review the causes of SRBDs including snoring and OSA and to review and infer the relationship between these SRBDs and TMD/orofacial pain. The effects of snoring and OSA extend beyond sleep disturbances and are worthy of future research, especially with regard to TMD.