Glycemic Index of Commonly Consumed Foods in Benin (West Africa)
Author(s): Carmelle Mizéhoun-Adissoda, Halimatou Alaofè, Jules Gninkoun, Berenice Nicoué, Achille Yémoa, Bonaventure Awèdé
Background: Consistent consumption of a diet with a high glycemic index (GI) increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and associated chronic diseases. As such, it is critical to know the GI of foods and make informed choices to prevent them. Unfortunately, the GI of commonly consumed foods in Benin has not been determined.
Objective: To determine the GI of six commonly consumed foods in Benin among healthy young adult subjects.
Methods: This study involved 18 healthy adult students from the Faculty of Health Sciences in Cotonou, southern Benin. Six local foods, namely local white rice, imported white rice, recycled corn paste, fried potatoes, corn paste, and red corn paste, were tested and compared to bread (reference food). The subjects' sociodemographic and anthropometric information was collected. Blood glucose levels were also measured 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after ingestion through venous blood samples. The GI was determined using the standard method.
Results: The study population's mean age and body mass index were 22.1 years and 21.3 kg/m2, respectively. The GI of the selected foods: local white rice, imported white rice, recycled corn paste, fried potatoes, corn paste, and red corn paste were 148.4%, 136.5%, 94.3%, 89.9%, 85.3%, and 77.8%, respectively.
Conclusion: All foods tested had a GI of over 70%, which is high, indicating that moderate consumption or small portions should be recommended to minimize their potential adverse health impacts.