Dengue Fever Complicated with Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A Case Report and Literature Review

Author(s): Muhammad Sohaib Asghar, Saira Anwar, Mohammed Akram, Maira Hassan, Behzad Rashid, Muhammad Sohaib Khan, Farzeen Wahab, Iqra Iqbal Akbar, Noor Jamil, Rida Rehan

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a hematological disorder with an incidence of around 6.5 cases per million every year. It is characterized by the clot formation in blood vessels and resulting thrombocytopenia due to widespread utilization in the process. Other clinical features include hemolytic anemia, neurological abnormalities, fever, and renal failure. The cause can be either congenital or acquired secondary to infections, the use of certain drugs, and autoimmune disorders. On the other hand, Dengue fever is a viral infection that can result in multiple systemic complications including disrupted coagulation, renal dysfunction, and inflammation in the liver, brain, and myocardial pathology. In this case report, we present a rare presentation of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in a patient with dengue fever. The mortality rate, in untreated cases, has been reported by up to 90%. With timely diagnosis and management with plasmapheresis, this can be reduced to 10-20%. Currently, it is important to control such an unknown outbreak of Dengue fever, as it is a serious health care issue of disease control and prevention in Pakistan.

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