Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorders (CKD-MBD)

Author(s): Osama Mosbah

The kidney plays a vital role in the metabolism of minerals and bone health. It is not only the target organ of several regulating hormones such as parathormon (PTH) and fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), but it is also the main organ that activates vitamin D. CKD-MBD was further expanded to include cardiovascular diseases (CVD), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), hypertension, immune dysfunction, inflammation and iron deficiency anemia, and thus its treatment is still a major challenge for the nephrologist that necessitates further pushing for the development of new agents with high specificity to the treatment of CKD induced MBD.

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