Cellular Mechanisms of Electromagnetic Field in Traumatic Brain Injury
Author(s): Imran Siddiqi, Maxwell Marino, Devendra K. Agrawal, Dave Baron, David A. Connett, Daniel Miulli
This paper presents a comprehensive review of the extant literature from 1980 through 2023 on the role and utility of Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) in the treatment of brain trauma and brain neuropathology resulting from disease. Brain trauma resulting from accident, injury and disease is a significant contributor to short and long-term morbidity, as well as a leading cause of mortality globally. To date, limited effective treatments strategies exist, and are focused primarily on symptom relief, not restoring primary preinjury function and structure. Much of the current clinical literature is based on retrospective case reports and limited animal model prospective trials exploring core etiology and alterations in post-injury clinical phenotypes. The current findings reported in the scientific literature suggest that electromagnetic therapy may hold promise as a potential non-invasive treatment for traumatic brain injury and neuropathology. Although promising, well designed clinical trials are needed to better determine its potential clinical effectiveness in this diverse patient population. Future trials will need to determine the impact of clinical variables, such as sex, age, type and extent of injury and pathology, pre-injury baseline health status and a comprehensive biopsychosocial assessment to determine a more effective personalized approach to patient care. Although initially showing promise, much work needs to be done.