Biomechanical Forces in the Tissue Engineering and Regeneration of Shoulder, Hip, Knee, and Ankle Joints

Author(s): Merlin Rajesh Lal LP, Devendra K Agrawal

Tear on the tendon, ligament and articular cartilage of the joints do not heal by itself and new modalities of treatment are required to address the need for full restoration of joint functions. Accompanied by degenerative diseases, the healing of these tissues does not occur naturally and hence requires surgical interventions, but with associated morbidity. Tissue engineering strategies are now focusing on the effective incorporation of biomechanical stimulation by the application of biomechanical forces relevant to the tissue of interest to regenerate and engineer functional tissues. Bioreactors are being continuously developed to accomplish this goal. Although bioreactors have been developed, the advancement in the field of biomaterial, basic science, and cell engineering warrant further refinement for their effective use. In this article we reviewed the application of biomechanical forces in the tissue engineering and regeneration of the joints such as rotator cuff of shoulder, ball and socket joint of the hip, articular cartilage of knee, and the ankle joints.

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