Bacterial Infection and Antibiotic Resistance Seen in the Laboratory of the University Hospital of Befelatanana

Author(s): Fidiniaina Mamy Randriatsarafara, Zafindrasoa Domoina Rakotovao-Ravahatra, Miora Koloina Ranaivosoa, Andriamiadana Luc Rakotovao

Background: Bacterial infections are common in hospitals. The objectives of the present study are to describe the bacteriological profile of bacterial infections and to assess the antibiotic resistance of bacteria at the Befelatananana University Hospital. Methods: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional and descriptive study from July 01 to December 31, 2019 at the laboratory of the University Hospital of Befelatanana. Results: Among the 1150 patients, 397 were affected by bacterial infections, for a prevalence of 34.5%. Enterobacteriaceae were the most frequently isolated with 164 (40%) bacteria identified. Women (40.8%; p = 10-6), subjects with suppurations and sores (70.7%; p = 10-6), subjects in intensive care (57.7%; p = 10- 6) and patients with pus swabs (80%; p = 10-6) were most affected by bacterial infections. The majority of bacteria were resistant to penicillins and cotrimoxazole (40.6% to 100% resistance). Staphylococci and streptococci were all susceptible to vancomycin. All Gram-negative bacilli were susceptible to amikacin and imipenem except the genus Acinetobacter which showed 58.3% resistance to amikacin and 75% resistance to imipenem. Conclusion: Empirical treatments for infectious diseases and self-medication should be avoided in order to improve the management of patients with bacterial infections.

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