Associations of Statin Use with Deep Surgical Site Infections and Late Non-Infectious Revision Surgeries in Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Surgery: A Clinical Cohort Study

Author(s): Ines Unterfrauner, Maurits Olthof, Peter Jans, Regula Schüpbach, Anita Hasler, Mazda Farshad, Michael Betz, Ilker Uçkay

Statins have multiple preventive properties. We investigate if a chronic perioperative statin medication for cardiovascular indications reduces deep orthopedic surgical site infections (SSI), and other late non-infectious complications, in adult patients. We performed a single-center cohort of primary orthopedic interventions 2014-2019; with the exclusion of infection surgery and diabetic foot surgery. Group comparisons with Cox regression analyses; with and without propensity-score matching (nearest neighbor approach). We included 20,088 interventions in 20,088 different patients (median age 53 years, 49% females, 5% diabetes mellitus). Among them, 2,486 episodes (12%) revealed a pre-operative statin therapy (222 different brands and doses). After a median follow-up of 11 months, 1,414 episodes needed a surgical revision: 158 (0.8%) due to deep SSI and 1256 (6.3%) for non-infectious reasons. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, statin use was unrelated to both SSI (hazard ratio (HR) 0.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6-1.4) and non-infectious complications (HR 1.1, 95%CI 0.9-1.3). We equally lacked associations when we associated deep SSIS with statin use for the subgroups of implant-related surgery (HR 0.8, 95%CI 0.4-1.6) or orthroplasties (HR 0.8, 95%CI 0.3-2.6), separately. Likewise, propensity-score matched analyses on the variable “statin” equally failed to alter these outcomes. In our large cohort study with 20,088 orthopedic interventions, we found no protective association of a statin medication on deep SSI risks; or on other late non-infectious complications requiring revision surgery.

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