Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Glucosamine Used in Combination with Plants Extracts on Adjuvant Arthritis Rat
Author(s): Amélie St-Pierre, Véronique Desrosiers, France Dufresne, Pierre U. Blier
Rheumatoid arthritis has increased significantly these past years. There is a major interest in the development of treatments with drugs derived from plants or other natural sources with little adverse effects as an alternative to current treatments who have limited efficiency due to their undesirable effects on patient health. The present study evaluates the therapeutic effects of glucosamine in combination with hyaluronic acid, resin extract of Boswellia serrata, and bark extract of Salix alba on an animal model. We suggest that combinations with plants could improve the attenuation of arthritis symptoms and articular inflammation. We used Freund’s complete adjuvant on rats as models of rheumatoid arthritis. Individuals were separated into eight experimental groups: a control group without arthritis, one with arthritis and without treatment, and six other groups receiving a daily therapeutic treatment. Hind-paw thickness and arthritis scores were measured at different days. At the end of the treatment, the mRNA content of three pro-inflammatory cytokines from cartilage was measured using real-time PCR. The total antioxidant activity was assessed with an Antioxidant Assay Kit. Treatments with Boswellia serrata and Salix alba (Glu+Hyal A+Bosw, Glu+Bosw+Sal, Glu+Bosw and Glu+Hyal A+Sal) resulted in significant reductions in hind-paw thickness and arthritis scores as compared to the untreated group. Expression of pro-inflammatory gene IL 17A was also reduced, but only the Glu+Hyal A+Sal combination significantly decreased the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α. The total antioxidant activity in blood plasma significantly increased in groups treated with plant extracts.