Aflatoxin Detection and Quantification in Stored Cowpea Seeds in Ibadan, Nigeria

Author(s): Oredoyin A Ogungbemile, Peter M Etaware, Adegboyega C Odebode

Aflatoxins were reportedly detected in the kidney of 58% of deceased children caused by kwashiorkor at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife. The incidence of kwashiorkor in West Africa has since been associated with aflatoxin contamination of human diets. Although, more researches need to be conducted to proper ascertain the level of menace caused by Aflatoxin ingestion in humans, the frequency of occurrence on stored cowpea seeds in Nigeria was the aim of this research. The procedure described by Association of Official Analytical Chemists AOAC [1] was used in the detection and quantification of Aflatoxins present in stored cowpea seeds in Ibadan, Nigeria. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were detected in all cowpea samples analyzed. Samples collected from Oja-Oba market were found to contain the highest amount Aflatoxins i.e. B1 (1.5 × 10-2 µg/g), B2 (0.80 × 10-2 µg/g), G1 (0.60 × 10-2 µg/g), and G2 (1.0 × 10-2 µg/g) compared to those found in other market locations, the control setup and WHO [2] standards (P ≤ 0.05). The result of this study calls for public health concern due to the high level of Aflatoxins found in cowpea seeds from local markets in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Utmost care should be taken to minimize or totally eliminate postharvest pathogens that produce mycotoxins in stored grains and pulses.

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