Accelerated Dynamic Time Warping on GPU for Selective Nanopore Sequencing

Author(s): Harisankar Sadasivan, Daniel Stiffler, Ajay Tirumala, Johnny Israeli, Satish Narayanasamy

The design and supply of RT-PCR primers for accurate virus testing is a complex process. The MinION is a revolutionary portable nanopore DNA sequencer that may be used to sequence the whole genome of a target virus in a biological sample. Human samples have more than 99% of non-target host DNA and Read Until is a protocol that enables the MinION to selectively eject reads in real-time. However, the Min- ION does not have any in-built compute power to select non-target reads. SquiggleFilter is a prior work that identified the accuracy and throughput challenges in performing Read Until using the state-of-the-art solution and proposed a hardware-accelerated subsequence Dynamic Time Warping (sDTW) based programmable filter on an ASIC. However, SquiggleFilter does not work for genomes larger than 100Kb. We propose DTWax which optimizes SquiggleFilter’s sDTW algorithm onto the more commonly available GPUs. DTWax better uses tensor core pipes, 2X-SIMD FP16 computations and efficient data handling strategies using offline pre-processing, coalesced global memory loads, warp shuffles and shared memory buffering among other optimizations. DTWax enables Read Until and yields 1.92X sequencing speedup (improvement in sequencing time) and ∼3.64X compute speedup: costup (improvement in compute time normalized to cloud access cost) over a sequencing workflow that does not use Read Until.

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